AREA Journal 25(2)

MAY – OCTOBER 2019

Director: Dra. Arq. Rita Laura Molinos
Editor: Dra. María Ledesma 
Co-editor: DG. Miguel A. Santángelo
Associate editor: Dr. Fernando Murillo

© The contents and metadata of this magazine are licensed under Open Access CC BY-NC-ND 2.5 AR
DNDA registration of the digital edition in process

Contents


Openings

Graphic records
Cecilia Alvarez; Pablo Baez; Guadalupe Neves y Horacio Wainhaus
[pdf]

Dossier

The territorial transformation of the city of Río Grande in Tierra del Fuego from the migrations generated by geopolitical decisions
Alberto Gaspar Vera
[pdf]

The city of Río Grande, province of Tierra del Fuego, in the far south of the Argentine Republic, had an accelerated growth during the last four decades due to the location of economic activities fostered by promotion legislation introduced after geopolitical decisions to occupy the territory with Argentine population. This generated large migration flows from other provinces. The urban sector of Margen Sur has been a particularly high recipient of migrants, where they settled and occupied lands. This resulted in an area with the worst indicators of land ownership and infrastructure services, overcrowded, with Unsatisfied Basic Needs, unemployment, illiteracy, and unrecoverable houses. During the last years, the municipal government took preventive actions to avoid new massive occupation of lands and urbanize informal settlements established since 2006. There is great uncertainty at present about the future of Río Grande but, if migrations continue, the authorities will need to address several fundamental challenges and take sustainable actions.

The General Paz. Political boundary of the territory for the new capital of the republic
Montserrat Fàbregas Flò
[pdf]

Finally in 1880, Buenos Aires is agreed to be the country’s capital city, establishing, in 1887, its new limit. Then begins the aim of populating the country and urbanizing the capital to be at the level of international metropolises. Therefore, migration policies are established to enhance the occupation of the territory and experienced foreign professionals are required to build the city. From the second half of the 20th century, the conurbation begins to expand exponentially as an effect of dependency on capital, conversely, the city has preserved its growth since then. The construction of the avenida General Paz as the boundary of the city in the 1940s stood out as an integrating project offering itself as a place of interaction and sociocultural exchange. But nowadays, due to the extensions and modifications that the road has suffered since then, it has become an urban border that highlights, even more, the differences between both jurisdictions.

The Andean Market of Liniers. Traces of bolivianity in Buenos Aires
Guadalupe Ciocoletto
[pdf]

Immigration, a phenomenon that has shaped the city –socially and physically– over time, has had different effects on the urbanityand on the ways of relating of local and foreign populations with public spaces.
One of the most important collectivities of Buenos Aires demographics today is the Bolivian. The Mercado Andino [Andean Market] is a scarcely studied space, although highly representative of Bolivianity, with different elements of intercultural communication conforming its spatiality.
This article proposes an analysis of its urbanity, its intercultural communication and its assessment by local power spaces.

Migration governance in the South American political context. Challenges for the regional integration process of MERCOSUR and associated states
Agustín Mussini
[pdf]

The accentuation of the regional integration processes and the improvement in regulatory frameworks that, over the past twenty years, meant for South America the consolidation of its migration trends and helped the region to earn a privileged place among the pioneer regions in the field of international protection of migrants, are now facing a disjunctive.
Faced with a scenario where more people than ever leave their countries looking for better living conditions, there are many cases in which, a substantial increase of xenophobic rhetoric and the hardening by several South American States of their migration policies as many European countries have already done, appear as a threat to the regional progress in this matter.
Therefore, the present study aims to identify the challenges that migration governance is facing in the MERCOSUR, based on the current South American political context in which, some governments, have already suggested a possible return to a model of securitization in their migration policies.

Migrations, interculturality, exile and architecture. Spanish tiles of the seventeenth century in Tunisia and America, a transatlantic encounter
Fernando Luis Martínez Nespral
[pdf]

At the beginning of the sixteenth century, shortly after the Christian conquest of Granada, Spanish Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity. Less than a century after that, in 1609, these new Christians, called Moriscos, were finally expelled from Spain. Many of them went to different Islamic territories around the Mediterranean, but a large number settled in Tunisia. Tens of thousands arrived there, generating a huge impact in many fields of Tunisian culture whose consequences are visible even nowadays.
Before his expulsion, the Moors had a remarkable role in construction and design in 16th-century Spain, where they continued the techniques and likings of their Islamic tradition and gradually included European Renaissance influences, creating the hybrid models that characterized the arts of this period as the tiles that we will develop in this text.
When finally Moors were expelled, they brought this art to their exile, a kind of confluence between Renaissance and Islamic Art. Contemporaneously, the conquest and colonization of America was being developed. So, Spanish conquerors brought to America, among other things, identical tiles. Therefore, we can find this type of tiles in contemporary structures located in Africa and Latin America, building an unsuspected transatlantic encounter.

Forced displacements and migrations. Brief lessons learned in Colombia
Mercedes Castillo de Herrera
[pdf]

The migration phenomenon in Colombia is extremely complex due to the events that comprise it, namely, the very high number of internally displaced persons due to the armed conflict, the migrations of Colombians abroad that include a large number of refugees and the number of foreigners who have arrived in the country. In 2016, the Colombian government signed a peace agreement with the FARC seeking to stop violence on both sides and committing to implement comprehensive rural reform and reduce poverty. Two and a half years after the signing of the agreement, there are several lessons learned regarding migration flows.

General researh topics

Energy poverty in Chaco, Argentina. Fontana, a metropolitan laboratory for energy strengthening for low resources populations
Guillermina Jacinto, Silvina Carrizo y Salvador Gil
[pdf]

The lack of safe and efficient energy services restricts the quality of life of the population. The issue of energy poverty is increasingly addressed in research at an international level and incorporated into political agendas at different scales. This paper presents the problem of energy poverty in Argentina. Then, it analyzes the energy service provision system in the province of Chaco and the energy supply conditions in Fontana (Metropolitan Area of Resistencia). Finally, it points out different alternatives, that could serve as a reference to similar populations in Argentina and Latin America.

Audiovisual Design as an intersubjective space. Dialogues on knowledge, practices and policies
Cristina Voto
[pdf]

Audiovisual Design and its products are present and proliferate in our urbanized societies. The recognition of this persistence, both in its daily and professional dimension, is the basis for the question that shapes this article. This is a question directed towards the phenomenon of Audiovisual Design and that seeks its answer from the discursive effects that the products print on those who make their experience. Being able to answer this question allows us to think about approximations with which to contribute to the debate about the epistemic identity of Audiovisual Design, with a particular focus on academic debates that emerges at the Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Urbanismo of the Universidad de Buenos Aires (FADU-UBA) through an articulation with references from other Latin American and foreign universities. It is in this sense that the pages to follow organize a series of dialogues in which Audiovisual Design is configured as an intersubjective space, since it is in this space where those who produce, use and circulate audiovisual forms and projects are related through knowledge, practices and policies.

Urban norms and its effects on constructibility. The implementation of the new Urban Code in the city of Rosario
Cintia Ariana Barenboim
[pdf]

The city of Rosario has been carrying out a process of adaptation and progressive replacement of its urban regulation with different ordering instruments. In particular, the reformulation of the Urban Code should not be exhausted in the technical provisions, but should consider economic growth and construction, internal debates and the impact on constructability.
In this context, ten years after its approval, the article focuses on the evaluation of the urban reorganization proposal and the effects on constructibility, mainly in the Central Area and the First Perimeter Ring, trying to contribute to a better implementation in the future.

Strategy and formulation of Nodes of Riverside Integration. Environmental articulators of the city of Buenos Aires
Ezequiel Flavio Martínez
[pdf]

This article is a research that carries out an analysis of the causes and consequences of human activities related to the physical and symbolic context of the riverside territory of the city of Buenos Aires, since its beginning to the present day. It presents perspectives about the evolution of the cultural matrix as the basis of the riverside appropriation form, materiality and habits.  It expounds a characterization of geographic transformation strategies caused by the city’s vertiginous growth during 19th and 20th century, and shows the gradual process of estrangement from the river due to the difficulties of accessibility and rights restrictions in different political and social scenarios. Finally it presents a management strategy based on Integration Waterfront Nodes, of local-scale transversal character for the reappropriation of the riverside territory, allowing to expand the links of the citizens and its rivers, founded a new cultural riverside matrix.

Retro-present machines. The search for an emotional dimension in computer technology objects
Martín Tisera
[pdf]

Of the multiple debates that the technique has been in the centre of, the actual work is concerned with its conception as dehumanized world. This idea, fed by a register made about the technique in the military area, in the degrading work in factories, in the control of people, among other cases, is rooted in the human mind up to the point of influencing over the present devices of informative technology. Of all of them, personal computers, cellphones and tablets, which are intervened with revivalist practices, will be analyzed. The nostalgic character of these operations and the creation, through them, of an affective dimension prone to counteract that view of the technique will be investigated in order to improve the relation that is had with artefacts of incredible daily use.

“Poor” or impoverishment? Measurement of the Unsatisfied Basic Needs and location of the population in Santa Fe
Emilia Mosso
[pdf]

A cluster of urban policies that are instrumentalized in Latin America in general, and in Santa Fe, Argentina, in particular, that target the impoverished population, are based on the foundations of the poverty approach based on the Unsatisfied Basic Needs, using This is different measurement methods. This perspective, framed in the Theory of Marginality and the Urbanization of Poverty, shares in common the consideration of the poorsubject as lacking. In this article we consider housing urban policies, supported by the NBI method, as a strategy detached from neoliberalism in order to justify operations of permanence or relocation of the population. As an objective, we seek to relate this methodology to the historical location of the impoverished population in precarious areas of Santa Fe where public housing programs are instrumentalized that seek to reverse these conditions.

Álvarez & Testa: Associates architects. The international architectural competition for the Biblioteca José Vasconcelos of Mexico
Carlos Gustavo Giménez y Julio Valentino
[pdf]

Mario Roberto Álvarez and Clorindo Testa worked in partnership on several occasions. However, despite the recognition their works reached, these preliminary projects did not have any kind of editorial divulgation. A specific case is the participation at the international Competition for the Biblioteca José Vasconcelos (Mexico, 2003). Although they were not selected by the jury to participate in the second round, this work has a very particular interest from the historiographical point of view, as it is the result of the meeting of these two great personalities and because it maintains the usual quality of their respective works.

The hidden history of objects, a monstrosity behind the simplicity of modernist design
Andrea Carolina Cuenca Botero
[pdf]

If the useful objects influenced by the modern movement spoke, what story would they tell?, in what way could they frame their passage through the categories such as simplicity and functionality?
The present is an invitation to travel through these questions through the texts that supported the creation of objects such as Colt’s Navy revolver, the CH24 chair by Hans Wegner, and J. Ives’s iPhone. In its interpretive reading, ideological suppositions were identified that exclude the subjects that solve the material culture, beyond the modernist notions. These acquire a monstrous character, in the terms of teratology, by limiting the expressivity of the papua, the practices of the tattoo, the ornament in the useful object and the abject eroticism in the artist as a cultural abnormality. At the closing, the difficulty of the Latin American and Caribbean designer to problematize those imaginaries of the modern movement sustained in an unequal relation with the other is problematized; due to its limited recognition of plurality, the limitations of economic models and the lack of communication with non-rational forms of knowledge.

Territorialities and sound demarcations in public space. The experience of Sarmiento Park in Córdoba city
Cristian Santiago Castiblanco Suarez
[pdf]

A methodological strategy applied in Parque Sarmiento (Córdoba, Argentina) is presented synthesizing the resources produced in dialogue to the research background. Reflections, projections and scopes are included, results of the interpretation of the qualitative-quantitative study, that implementing components of field and cabinet work through recording tools recognizes actors, demarcations and practices, exposed in attributes identified in categories of type age, temporal and sound, the latter as ways to territorialize the place, specifying a categorical work of activities and events present in the public space as an experience aimed at social assessment and spatial characterization.

Self-construction on the outskirts of Cusco city. A study based on mixed approach
Carlos Guillermo Vargas Febres
[pdf]

This article presents the most important aspects referred to the phenomenon of self-construction focused on the peripheral areas of the city of Cusco, the research seeks to study the factors by which homeowners decide to opt for informality to build.
The methodology based on the mixed approach (quantitative and qualitative) to study not only the indicators that authorities and institutions use to study this phenomenon, but the qualitative side that has to do with the culture and idiosyncrasy of the inhabitants.
In the results we found that the self-construction is due to the lack of evolution of the physical and psychological needs of the owners and to a lesser extent to economic or sociocultural factors such as family income or migration. More than 60% of owners have enough money income for the construction in reinforced concrete system but they do not feel the need for obedience and compliance with the legality that involves designing and building a home.

Review

A spectrum travels through Europe
Paula Siganevich
[pdf]